June"'30,' 1970 0. K. NILSSEN ETAL 3,518,586
ELECTRONIC TUNING DEVICE UTILIZING BINARY COUNTERS AND MEMORY SYSTEM 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 17, 1968 N E u N K E O ROAMLD J. FRE/MARK ROBERT/1. PAR KER INVENTO RS ATTORNEYS N QK June 30, 1970 0. K. NILSSEN ETAL 3,518,586
ELECTRONIC TUNING DEVICE UTILIZING BINARY COUNTERS AND MEMORY SYSTEM 5 Sheets-Sheet :3
Filed June 17, 1968 QN EN QNN w SN mwww @www uwww H QNN vww O L E A. N/L SSEN RON L0 J FR /MARK ROBERT/i PA/ /(ER INVENTORS ATTORNEYS June 30, 1970' 0. K. NILSSEN ETAL 3,513,536
ELECTRONIC TUNING DEVICE UTILIZING BINARY COUNTERS AND MEMORY SYSTEM 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed June 17, 1968 Saw ww www 0L 5 A. N/LSSEN RONALDJ FEE/MA RK ROBERT hf PA RKER A INVENTORS ATTORNEYS 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 June 30, 1970 0. K. NILSSEN ETAL ELECTRONIC TUNING DEVICE UTILIZING BINARY COUNTERS AND MEMORY SYSTEM Filed June 17, 1968 June 30, 1970 O K ELECTRONIC TUNING DEVICE UTILIZING BINARY COUNTERS AND MEMORY SYSTEM Filed June 17, 1968 NILSSIEN ETAL 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 328a g328a J3me; 330K FIG] fl//iifi BERM'PAR/(E/P INVENTORS B ,t 54% ATTORNEYS United States Patent O 3,518,586 ELECTRONIC TUNING DEVICE UTILIZING BINARY COUNTERS AND MEMORY SYSTEM Ole K. Nilssen, Bensenville, Ill., and Ronald .I. Freimark,
Allen Park, and Robert H. Parker, Farmington, Mich.,
assignors to Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Micli.,
a corporation of Delaware Filed June 17, 1968, Ser. No. 737,763 Int. Cl. H03j /32 U.S. Cl. 334-7 13 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Increments of capacitance are switched into and out of the resonant circuits of a radio according to the states of binary counters and thereby determine the tuned frequency of the radio. The counters are coupled to a pulse generator controlled by the radio manual tuning knob and add or subtract the pulses received therefrom depending on the direction the knob is turned. A memory system is actuated by the radio push buttons to switch the increments of capacitance according to the states of storage elements. In place of the increments of capicitance, the capacitance of hyper-abrupt junction diodes is continuously varied by a voltage analogous to the binary sense of the counters.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Virtually all continuously tunable type radios tune to varying frequencies by mechanically rotating tuning capacitors or reciprocating tuning slugs in inductors. Many of these radios, particularly those used in automotive vehicles, also have manually operable push buttons that can be set to preselected stations and will tune the radio to that station when the push button is actuated. In the past, these push buttons tuned the radio by mechanically positioning a plurality of the tuning slugs in appropriate inductors and the manual tuning knob was geared to a mechanism for moving the same tuning slugs.
In the older radios employing vacuum tubes as amplifying stages, the physical size of the manual tuning mechanisms occupied a relatively small proportion of the entire radio package. The less bulky amplifying circuitry provided initially by the transistor and more recently by integrated circuitry, however, has rendered the mechanical station selecting mechanisms associated with push buttons and manual tuning knobs by far the largest component of the radio. Reducing the size of instrument packages for automobile instrument panels has always been a desirable objective, and recently proposed safety standards specifying the impact cushioning in vehicle interiors have added tremendous impetus to this objective.
This invention provides a device for tuning a radio in response to a manually rotatable tuning knob and push buttons preset to selected frequencies that is capable of miniaturization along with the other radio components. In a radio used in sending or receiving modulated electromagnetic carrier waves of varying frequencies and having a resonant circuit for tuning to a carrier wave frequency, the device comprises a variable reactance that can be in the form of incremental capacitors, inductors, or resistors connected for coupling into and out of the resonant circuit. Each incremental unit has a switch associated therewith to effect the coupling and uncoupling, with the 3,518,586 Patented June 30, 1970 "ice switches controlled by pulse counters. A pulse generator controlled by the manually operable tuning knob is coupled to the pulse counters. When a different station is desired, the tuning knob is rotated to begin pulse generation. These pulses and a sense signal are fed to the pulse counters which close or open the appropriate switches to couple or uncouple appropriate incremental capacitors and thereby vary the resonant frequency until the radio is tuned to the new station.
Also coupled to the pulse counters and the switches associated with each incremental unit is a memory system for storing the states of the pulse counters and for operating the switches accordingly. The radio push buttons actuate the memory system, which includes a remember circuit for storing the states of the pulse counters when the radio is tuned to any desired frequency in a memory. Subsequent operation of a radio push button actuates the switches according to the stored states and thereby tunes the radio to that frequency.
The tuning device of this invention can be used in any mechanism for the transmission of electromagnetic carrier waves such as standard broadcasting AM and FM radios, transmitters, transreceivers, television sets, and aircraft and watercraft communication and navigation sets. As used in this application, the phrase transmission of electromagnetic carrier waves is intended to include both sending and receiving equipment. The size reducing advantage of the tuning device is most realizable in portable and transportation equipment although this advantage combined with tuning accurracy and ease renders the device attractive in any installation on either end of the transmission process.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the tuning device of this invention showing the device connected to the tunable circuits of a superheterodyne radio receiver. FIG. 2 is a circuit diagram of a typical pulse generator useful in the tuning device. FIG. 3 is a circuit diagram of the pulse counter showing three binary counters with appropriate gating and also showing a portion of the remember circuitry. FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram of the preset amplifier used in the remember circuitry and the memory circuit showing the memory elements, station selecting push buttons and the operating coils of the switches for the incremental capacitors. FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram of the entire tuning device showing the interconnections between the various portions shown in FIGS. 2-4. FIG. 6 shows electronic circuitry that can be used to replace the reed relays in FIGS. l-5. FIG. 7 shows another circuit for replacing the reed relays in which a resistance ladder converts the binary sense of the counters into analog sense and hyper-abrupt junction diodes responsive to the analog sense serve as the variable reactance to change the resonant frequency of tank circuits.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION Referring to FIG. 1, the radio antenna 10 is connected through an input transformer 12 to an RF amplifier stage 14 having a tunable tank circuit enclosed by dashed line 16. Tank circuit 16 comprises a fixed inductor 18 in parallel with a fixed capacitor 20 plus eleven incremental capacitors 22a, 22b, 22c 22k. Each incremental capacitor is in series with a switch represented by boxes 24a, 24b, 24c 24k. The tank circuit is connected to ground at 25.
The output from RF amplifier stage 14 is coupled through an input transformer 26 to a mixer stage 28 having a tunable tank circuit enclosed by dashed line 30. Tank circuit 30 comprises a fixed inductance 38 in parallel with a fixed capacitance 40 plus eleven incremental capacitors 42a, 42b, 42c 42k. Each of the latter group of incremental capacitors is in series with a switch represented by boxes 44a, 44b, 44c 44k.
A local oscillator 46 has its output coupled to a mixer stage 28. The frequency of oscillator 46 is determined by a tunable tank circuit enclosed by dashed line 48 that is coupled to ground through a capacitor 50 in series with an inductor 52. Tank circuit 4-8 comprises a fixed inductor 54 in parallel with a fixed capacitor 56 plus an additional eleven incremental capacitors 62a, 62b, 62c 62k. Each of incremental capacitors 62 is in series with a switch represented by boxes 64a, 64b, 64c 64k. The output of mixer stage 28 is coupled to conventional IF stages (not shown) and the subsequent stages of radio, all of which operate in the conventional manner.
Tank circuits 1'6, 30 and 48 are designed so they tune the associated stage to the proper frequency when corresponding incremental capacitors are in the respective tank circuit. Thus, when all of the switches associated with the incremental capacitors are open, the tank circuits are tuned to convert a certain input frequency appearing at the antenna into the constant IF frequency; when incremental capacitors 22a, 42a, and 62a are in the respective tank circuits, the tank circuits convert another input frequency into the same IF frequency, etc.
Each switch associated with an incremental capacitor is a reed relay with the operating coils in switches 24a to 24k represented by numerals 66a, 66b, 66c 66k, respectively, the operating coils in switches 44a to 44k represented by numerals 68a to 68k, and the operating coils in switches 64a to 64k represented by numerals 70a to 70k. Coils 66a, 68a and 70a are in series with each other, coils 66b, 68b and 70b are in series with each other, etc. The open side of each coil 70 is connected to a voltage source at point 71.
Turning now to the block diagram portion of FIG. 1, a tuning knob 72 is connected to an oscillator 74 that has a sense control 76 associated therewith. A lead 78 connects oscillator 74 with a pulse counter represented generally by the numeral 80 and two leads 82 and 84 connect sense control 76 with pulse counter 80. Pulse counter 80 is made up of eleven binary counters designated by 80a, 80b, 80c 80k, with each binary counter corresponding to the series of switches in the tank circuits having the same sufiix letter (e.g., counter 80a corresponds to switches 24a, 44a, 64a; counter 80b corresponds to switches 24b, 44b, 64b). A preset button 86 associated with a preset amplifier represented by 88 is connected to pulse counter 80 by leads 90 and 92.
A memory 94 is made up of eleven sections 94a, 94b, 94c 94k. Each section of memory 94 is connected to the corresponding binary counter in pulse counter 80 by respective leads 96a, 96b, 96c 96k and 98a, 98b, 98c 98k, and to the open side of the corresponding coil 66 by a lead 100a, 100b, 1000 100k, with the corresponding components having the same suifix letter. Five push buttons 102v, 102w, 102x, 102y, 102z are connected to memory 94 by leads 104 v, 104w 1042.
The circuits of oscillator 74 and sense control 76 are shown in FIG. 2. A battery 106 has its negative terminal 108 connected to ground and its positive terminal 110 connected through a resistor 112 to base 2 of a unijunction transistor 114. Base 1 of unijunction transistor 114 is connected through a resistor 116 to negative terminal 108 as indicated by its connection to ground.
A PNP type transistor 118 has its emitter 118e connected through a resistor 120 to positive terminal 110 of the battery and its collector 118c connected to the emitter 114e of unijunction transistor 114. Transistor base 11% is connected through a resistor 122 to a lead 124 that has one end connected through a resistor 126 to positive terminal 110. A capacitor 128 in parallel with the collector-emitter terminals of an NPN transistor 130 connects collector 1180 to ground, with collector 1186 being connected to the collector of transistor 130. Another NPN transistor 132 has its collector connected to the positive terminal through a resistor 134 and its emitter connected to ground. The bases of transistors and 132 are connected to base 1 of the unijunction transistor 114. Lead 78 (FIG. 1) is connected to the collector of transistor 132.
The other end of lead 124 is connected to ground through a parallel arrangement of two pressure sensitive resistors 136 and 138 and a fixed resistor 140. Associated with each pressure sensitive resistor is a pole 142, 144 movable to grounded contacts 146, 148, respectively, but normally out of touch therewith. Pole 142 is connected to positive terminal 110 through a resistor 150, and pole 144 similarly is connected to positive terminal 110 through a resistor 152. In addition, pole 142 is connected to the base 154b of an NPN type transistor 154, and pole 144 is connected to the base 156b of an NPN type transistor 156. The collectors of transistors 154 and 156 are connected to the positive potential of a predetermined value at point 157. Emitter 154e is connected to lead 84 and emitter 156:: is connected to lead 82.
Transistors 114, 118, 130 and 132, resistors 136 and 138 and interconnecting circuitry make up the oscillator 74. Poles 142 and 144, transistors 154 and 156 and interconnecting circuitry make up the sense control 76.
Typical values or types of the FIG. 2 components useful with a 12 volt battery and about 3.7 volts at point 157 are: resistor 112, 330 ohms; unijunction transistor 114, 2Nl671; resistor 116, 180 ohms; transistor 118, 2N3638; resistor 120, 180 ohms; resistor 122, 1K ohms; resistor 126, 200 ohms; capacitor 128, 2 microfarads; transistors 130 and 132, type 2N3053; resistor 134, 4.7K; resistors 136 and 138, 215K; resistor 6.8K; resistors and 152, 10K; and transistors 154 and 156, type 2N3053.
FIG. 3 shows only three binary counters 80a, 80b and 800 of the eleven counters in pulse counter 80 since the other counters are duplicates. The counters in FIG. 3 are separated by dotted lines. Each counter comprises a JK type flip flop 160a, 160b, 1601:. Taking flip flop 160a as an example, the flip flop has a set pin 162a, a reset pin 164a, a clock pulse (CP) pin 166a, a Q pin 168a, a 65 pin 170a, and a preset pin 172a. Corresponding pins on the other flip flops are numbered accordingly with suflix letters designating the flip flop.
Lead 78 from the pulse generator described in FIG. 2 is connected to GP pin 166a. A source of voltage is applied at one end of a resistor 174 which is connected to a lead 176. Lead 176 is connected to set pin 162a and reset pin 164a and to the anodes of two diodes 178 and 180. The cathode of diode 178 is connected to lead 82 and the cathode of diode 180 is connected to lead '84. Resistors 182 and 184 connect respective leads 82 and 84 to ground.
Q pin 168a is coupled through a capacitor 1 86a to one input 188a of a NAND gate 190a. Similarly, pin 170a is coupled through a capacitor 192:: to one input 194a of a second NAND gate 196a. Resistors 198a and 200a couple inputs 188a and 194a to a voltage source 202a. Each NAND gate 190 and 196 has two inputs with the other input of NAND gate 190a coupled to lead 82 and the other input of NAND gate 196a coupled to lead 84. Resistors 204a and 206a couple the outputs of NAND gates 190a and 196a to the CP pin 166b of the flip flop 160b in the next binary counter 8011.
A lead 208a connects 6 pin 170a to the collector of an NPN transistor 210a. The emitter of transistor 210a is connected to lead 92 (FIG. 1). A resistor 212a connects the base of transistor 2100 to ground and a capacitor 214a connects the base to a lead 216a. Lead 216a is connected to a voltage source 218a through a resistor 220a and also is connected to the collector of another NPN transistor 222a. The emitter of transistor 222a is connected to ground and the base is connected to lead 96a (FIG. 1).
A resistor 224a connects lead 208a through an amplitier-inverter represented by 226a to the base of an NPN transistor 228a. The emitter of transistor 228a is connected to ground and the collector is connected to lead 98a (FIG. 1).
Counters 80b and 800, etc., are constructed similarly except the set and reset terminals of the fiip flops are grounded by leads not shown. The last flip flop 80k, of course, does not have NAND gates coupled to its Q and Q pins.
Typical types and values of components used in the FIG. 3 construction are flip flops 160, Fairchild RT,u.L 9923 micrologic integrated circuits; diodes 178 and 180, 2N400l; resistors 182 and 184; 4.7K ohms; capacitors 186 and 192, 500 picofarads; NAND gates 190 and 196, Fairchild RTpl, 9914; resistors 198 and 200, 4.7K; resistors 204 and 206, 1K; transistors 210 and 222, type 2N4124; resistors 212, 68K; capacitors 214, 150 microfarads; resistors 220, 4.7K; resistors 224, 680 ohms; amplifier-inverters 226, RTuL 9900; and transistors 228, type 2N3'05 3. A positive potential of approximately 3.7 volts is applied to the top of resistor 174, points 202, and points 218.
Three sections 94a, 94b, and 940 of memory 94 along with the five push buttons 102 and the circuitry of preset amplifier 88 are shown in FIG. 4. Each of push buttons 102 acts on a switch pole 240v, 240w, 240x, 2403 and 240z, respectively. Pole 2402 is connected to a voltage source at point 242 and is movable from a contact 244z to a contact 2461. Contact 244z is connected to pole 240 which is movable between contacts 244y and 246 In similar fashion, contact 244y is connected to pole 240x which is movable between contacts 244x and 246x; contact 244x is connected to pole 240w which is movable between contacts 244w and 246w; and contact 244w is connected to pole 240v which is movable between contacts 244v and 246v.
Contacts 246v, w, x, y and z are connected to leads 104v, w, x, y and 2 (FIG. 1), respectively. Poles 240' are normally in touch with appropriate contacts 244 but are moved to contacts 246 upon actuation of the appropriate push button 102.
A resistor 248 connects contact 244v to the base of a PNP transistor 250, and a resistor 249 connects the base to ground. The collector of transistor 250 is connected to ground and the emitter is connected through a resistor 252 to a voltage source at point 254. In addition, a capacitor 256 couples couples the emitter to an amplifierinverter indicated generally by numeral 258. Amplifier 258 contains an internal resistor 259 connected to point 254.
Lead 90 (FIG. 1) is connected to the output of amplifier 258. A resistor 260 connects lead 90 to ground and the lead also is connected to a contact 262. A grounded switch pole 264 is normally in touch with a contact 266 connected to lead 92 (FIG. 1) but is moved into touch with contact 262 when actuated by preset push button 86. Transistors 210, 222 and 250', amplifier 258, pole 264 and the interconnecting circuitry make up the remember circuit.
Each section of the memory consists of five ferromagnetic cores with cores 94av, 94aw, 940x, 94ay and 94az in section 94; cores 94bv, 94bw, 94bx, 94by and 94bz in section 94b; etc. Each core contains a read winding 280, a write winding 282, and a clear winding 284 with the read winding on core 94av designated 280av, the write winding 282av, and the clear winding 284av; the read winding on core 94aw designated 280aw, the write winding 282aw, and the clear winding 284aw; etc. The dot convention is used in FIG. 4 to designate the relative connections of the read, write and clear windmgs.
Read windings 280av, w, x, y, z are connected in series and connect lead 96a to a lead 286. Similarly, read windings 280bv, w, x, y, z are connected in series and connect lead 96b to lead 286; read windings 280cv, w, x, y, z are connected in series and connect lead 960 to lead 286; etc. Lead 286 is connected through a resistor 290 to a positive voltage source at point 288 and through a resistor 292 in parallel with a capacitor 294 to ground.
Write windings 282av, w, x, y, z are connected in series with each other and connect lead 98a through a resistor 296a to lead 100a (FIG. 1). A voltage source represented by point 298 is connected to the top of resistor 296a through a resistor 300a. Similarly, write windings 282bv, w, x, y, z are connected in series and connect lead 981) to the top of a resistor 2961; that is connected to lead 100b, with resistor 300b connecting the voltage source 298 to the top of resistor 296k. In a similar manner, write windings 282 in section 940 connect lead 980 through appropriate resistors 2960 and 300s to lead 100c and voltage source 298; etc.
Clear windings 284av, 284bv, 284cv 284kv are connected in series with each other and connect lead 104v to a resistor 302v. A capacitor 304v connects resistor 302v to ground. Similarly, clear windings 284aw, 284bw, 284cw 284kw connect lead 104w through a resistor 302w and a capacitor 304w to ground; clear windings 284cm, 284bx, 284cx 284kx are connected in series and connect lead 104x through resistors 302x and capacitor 304x to ground; etc. At the left side of the memory, resistors 306v, w, x, y and 2 connect respective contact 246v, w, x, y and z to ground.
With positive potentials of 12 volts at points 71, 242 and 298 and 3.7 volts at points 254 and 288, typical values and types of the components used in FIG. 4 are resistor 248, 4.7K resistor 249, 1K; transistor 250, 2N4l26; resistor 252 100K; capacitor 256, .05 microfarad; amplifier 258, Fairchild RT L 9900,- resistor 260, 68 ohms; cores 94, Indiana General ML 140; resistor 290, 8.2K; resistor 292, 5.6K; capacitor 294, 0.22 microfarad; resistors 296, 40 ohms; resistors 300, ohms; resistors 302, 15 ohms; capacitors 304, 10 microfarads; and resistors 306, 68 ohms.
OPERATION OF FIGS. 2-5
FIG. 5 shows the interconected circuits of FIGS. 2-4 and should be used to understand the portions of the following discussion where the interconnected operation is described.
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, turning tuning knob 72 in one direction decreases the resistance of variable resistor 136 and moves pole 142 into touch with contact 146, while turning the tuning knob in the opposite direction decreases the resistance of resistor 138 moves pole 144 into touch with contact 148. Spring loading on the tuning knob returns the knob to its neutral position whenever the turning force is removed. When the tuning knob is in its neutral position, transistor 118 is reverse biased so emitter 114e stays substantially at ground potential and no pulses are produced. When the tuning knob is turned in either direction, the reduced resistance of resistors 136 or 138 reduces the potential at base 118b to forward bias transistor 118. Capacitor 128 begins charging and the potential of emitter 114a of the unijunction transistor begins rising to its peak point.
Unijunction transistor 114a breaks into conduction when the potential at emitter 114e reaches the peak point. The potential at the bases of transistors 130 and 132 then increases and transistors 130 and 132 break into conduction. Transistor 130 discharges capacitor 128 rapidly and efficiently while transistor 132 decreases the potential at lead 78. When capacitor 128 is discharged, unijunction transistor 114 again becomes non-conducting, thereby turning off transistors 130 and 132. The potential at lead 78 increases substantially to supply voltage so a pulse has been produced in lead 78.
Assuming that tuning knob '72 was turned in the direction actuating resistor 136, pole 142 is moved into touch with contact 146 thereby grounding base 15% of transistor 154. With the positive potential of about 3.7 volts at the collectors of transistors 154 and 156, the transistors have an emitter follower function so grounding base 154b substantially grounds emitter 1442 and lead 84.
Turning to FIG. 3, when a voltage is applied to both the set and reset pins 162 and 164 of a JK flip flop, a pulse at the CP pin 166 has no aflect on the state of the flip flop. When the set and reset pins are grounded, a pulse at the CP pin toggles the flip flop. Thus, under normal conditions, the voltage applied through resistor 174 maintains set and reset pins 162a and 164a at a relatively high voltage so any pulses or noise inadvertently fed through lead 73 will not change the state of flip flop 160a. When rotation of the tuning knob grounds the base of either transistor 154 or 156, however, the emitterfollower action of the transistor grounds lead 82 or 84. Pins 162a and 164a then are grounded through diode 178 or 180 and each pulse at CP pins 166b, 166s, etc., toggles the appropriate flip flop.
NAND gates 190 and 196 produce a positive output pulse when both inputs become grounded. Leads 82 and 84 normally are positive and taking NAND gates 196a and 196a as examples, leads 188a and 194a normally are positive by virtue of the voltage at point 202a. When the tuning knob is turned in the direction moving pole 144 into touch with contact 148, lead 82, which is one input to NAND gate 199a, is grounded. Assuming that the voltage at pin 168a is high so flip flop 160a is storing a one (i.e., the set state), the next pulse in line 78 toggles the flip flop, which reduces the voltage at pin 168a to ground and raises the voltage of pin 176a so the flip flop now stores a zero (the reset state). As the voltge on pin 168a drops, a negative pulse is produced in lead 1880. This negative pulse drags the second input of NAND gate 190a to ground and the NAND gate then produces a positive pulse that passes through resistor 204a to CF pin 16617.
If flip flop 16Gb is in the set state when this pulse reaches pin 166b, the pulse changes the state of flip flop 16012 to the reset state and NAND gate 1911b produces a positive pulse at CP pin 166a. If flip flop 16% is in the reset state when the pulse reaches pin 166b, however, changing pin 16% to a positive voltage produces a positive pulse in lead 188b. Because lead 18% does not become grounded momentarily NAND gate 1913b does not produce a positive pulse. Furthermore, as pin 1741b loses its positive voltage, a negative pulse is produced in lead 19% but because the other input to NAND gate 1196b (i.e., lead 84) is not grounded, NAND gate 1961) does not produce a positive output pulse. The same of course is true for flip flop 160a, so when lead 82 is grounded and flip flop 160a is reset, the next pulse on pin 166a toggles flip flop 160a but does not change the states of the other flip flops.
Conversely, when lead 84- is grounded (through pole 142) and flip flop 160a is reset, the next pulse on CP pin 166a toggles flip flop 166a and NAND gate 196a passes a pulse to GP pin 16617; when the flip flop is set, the next pulse toggles flip flop 160a only. Thus the series of flip flops 160 and gates 190 and 196 provide a binary counting function in which flip flop 160a stores the first binary digit, flip flop 16% stores the second, 16% the third, etc. Applying a pulse to pin 166a and grounding lead 82 increases the binary number stored in the flip flops while applying the pulse and grounding lead 84 decreases the binary number.
When pin 1700 is at a high voltage (i.e., flip flop 160a is in the reset state or stores a zero), lead 208a transmits the voltage into amplifier-inverter 226a which produces a negative voltage at the base of transistor 228a. This turns ofl. transistor 228a and stops the current flowing from point 71 through coils 70a, 68a, 66a, windings 282a and lead 98a (see FIG. 5). The lack of current in coils 66a, 68a, and 70a opens the contacts of the associated reed relays and switches capacitors 22a, 42a, and 62a out of the appropriate tank circuits. When pin 170a is at a low voltage (i.e., flip flop a is in the set state or stores a one), a similar analysis shows that transistor 228w is turned on and the associated switches of the reed relays are closed so capacitors 22a, 42a, and 62a are switched into the appropriate tank circuit. Thus, each flip flop controls the coupling of a set of incremental capacitors into and out of the tank circuits and the radio is tuned to various carrier frequencies by adding or subtracting pulses from the flip flops.
Now assume the radio operator desires to set push button 102v to the tuned station so subsequent actuation of push button 102v will tune the radio to that station. To accomplish this, the radio operator first pushes preset button 86 which moves pole 264 to contact 262. This grounds lead 90, the output from amplifier 258, and also leaves lead 92 floating (see FIG. 5). Grounding lead 90 prevents any output of the preset amplifier from reaching the flip flops and floating lead 92 prevents any operation of transistors 210. Then the operator presses push button 102v which moves pole 240v into touch with contact 246v. Pole 240v connects the voltage source at point 242 to lead 104v and the resulting current in lead 104v charges capacitor 304v. While charging capacitor 304v, the current in lead 104v switches all cores in the v row (i.e., 94av, 941w, 94cv, etc.) into the same state.
Then the operator releases push button 102v. After pole 240v leaves contact 246v, capacitor 304v discharges through cores 94w 941W and resistor 306v. This discharge current is selected so it equals one half of the amount necessary to switch the cores. Those flip flops. storing a one (i.e., the 6 pin is low) have their associated transistors 228 turned on as described above to produce a current in associated leads 98. The components are designed so the current in lead 98 equals one half of the amount needed to change the state of a memory core. (Resistors 300 are used to adjust the current in leads 98 to the appropriate values.) These two currents add together to change the state of the cores associated with flip flops containing a one; cores associated with flip flops containing a zero receive only one half the amount of current required to change their state and therefore do not make the change. Thus the cores associated with push button 102v now contain the tuning data of the tuned station.
The radio operator can tune to other stations by turning knob '72 in one direction to move up the radio scale and in the other direction to move down the scale without alfecting the states of the memory cores, for the current in windings 282 never reaches the amount required to switch a core. A slight pressure on the knob acts through the pressure sensitive resistors 136, 138 to produce pulses at a low rate (i.e., 1-2 pulses per second) while a higher pressure results in a higher pulse production rate. The pulses change the states of the binary counters and thereby change the amounts of incremental capacitance in the tank circuits as described above.
Now assume the radio is tuned to another station and the radio operator wants to tune to the station stored under push button 102v. To do this, the circuitry first clears the flip flops and then sets each flip flop to the state stored in the appropriate memory core. The operator accomplishes these steps by merely pressing push button 102v. While all of poles 240 are in touch with their associated contact 244, the voltage at point 242 is applied to the base of transistor 250 where it reverse biases transistor 250. When pole 240v moves away from contact 244v, transistor 250 turns on and the coupling provided by capacitor 256 produces a negative pulse at the input of amplifier 258. Amplifier 258 inverts the negative pulse into a positive pulse in line 90 which applies the positive pulse to each preset pin 172. This pulse at the preset pins switches all of the flip flops to the reset state where the voltage at 6 pin 170 is high. Each of transistors 228 then is reverse biased, which switches each of the incremental capacitors out of its appropriate tank circuit. Thus moving a pole 240 away from its contact 244 clears the tank circuits of incremental capacitance.
When pole 240v strikes contact 246 v, it charges capacitor 304v as described above and brings all memory cores 94av, '94bv, 940v, etc., to the same orientation. The cores previously in the opposite orientation, however, contain a flux as they are switched while the cores already in that orientation produce no flux output. The flux produces a current in the read winding 280 of the appropriate core, and this current is applied to the base of the appropriate transistor 222, thereby turning 01f the transistor. As transistor 222 turns off, the associated capacitor 214 transmits a positive pulse to the base of transistor 210. The positive pulse turns on transistor 210 which then grounds its associated 6 pin 170 through lead 208, lead 92 and pole 264. This changes the state of the associated flip flop so the flip flop now is in the set state and corresponds to the state stored in its associated memory core before the push button was actuated. Since pin 170 of the changed flip flops now is at a low voltage, its associated transistor 228 turns on and closes the appropriate reed relays to switch the proper amounts of incremental capacitance into the tank circuits. The radio now is tuned to the station previously set into the part of the memory associated with push button 102v.
The operator then releases push button 102v and after pole 240v leaves contact 246, capacitor 304v discharges through windings 284av, 284bv, etc., and resistor 306v as described above. Again the discharging capacitor produces one half of the amount of current required to switch the core and this half current combines with the half current existing in the windings 282 associated with those flip flops in the state to switch the associated core into an orientation representing the state of its flip flop. Thus the cores return to the previously stored states.
In a similar manner, the cores associated with the other push buttons are set to any desired stations. Any row of cores can be cleared of a previously stored station and set to a new station, which must be the station presently tuned on the radio, by actuating the preset button 86 and then the appropriate push button 102. Lead 90 is grounded to prevent presetting the flip flops, and lead 92 is floating to prevent the flux in certain cores from changing the states of the associated flip flops. As the pole 240 touches the contact 246, the current charging the capacitor 304 erases the sense previously existing in the memory cores. After pole 240 moves away from the contact 246, the cores are switched to the states of the associated flip flop by the half current mechanism described above.
Values of each group of incremental capacitors are selected according to the binary numbering system so capacitor 22a equals 1 unit, capacitor 22b equals 2 units, capacitor 220 equals 4 units, capacitor 22d equals 8 units capacitor 22k equals 1024 units. The band width of AM broadcasting carrier frequencies is about 10 kHz., and the eleven incremental capacitors divide the radio band into enough segments to provide proper tuning. Larger or smaller numbers of incremental capacitors can be used to produce the desired accuracy.
FIGS. 6 AND 7 Reed relays 66, 68 and 70 can be replaced by a switching circuit constructed according to FIG. 6. The FIG. 6 circuit is integrable and does not significantly degrade the Q of the tank circuit.
FIG. 6 shows the inductor 18 and capacitor 20 of tunable tank circuit 16 (FIG. 1) in parallel with incremental capacitors 22a and 22b of its 11 incremental capacitors. Capacitor 22a is in series with a diode 307a and another capacitor 308a, with capacitor 22a connected to the cathode of the diode and the anode of the diode connected to capacitor 308a. The cathode of the diode is connected to the collector of an NPN transistor 309a which has its emitter connected to ground and its base connected to lead a.
A resistor 310a connects lead 100a to ground and a resistor 311a connects lead 100a to the undotted terminal of winding 282az '(FIG. 4). A voltage source 312 is connected to the anode of diode 307a, a voltage source 313 is connected through a resistor 314a to the collector of transistor 309a, and a voltage source 315 is connected through a resistor 316a to lead 100a. Similar constructions are used with the other incremental capacitors.
When pin 170a of flip flop a is at a high voltage, transistor 228a is reverse biased and a relatively high voltage appears at the top of resistor 310a. Transistor 309a is forward biased thereby and drops the voltage of the anode of diode 307a. Diode 307a then is forward biased also and presents a small impedance to ground for alternating current on capacitor 22a. Capacitor 22a then is effectively coupled into the tank circuit and changes the resonant frequency thereof.
When pin a is at a low voltage, transistor 228a is forward biased and a low voltage appears at the top of resistor 310a. Transistor 309a and diode 307a then are reverse biased and the diode represents a high impedance in series with capacitor 22a, thereby effectively decoupling capacitor 22a from the tank circuit. Note that the FIG. 6 circuit couples the capacitor into the tank circuit when the flip flop stores a zero, which is the reverse of the FIG. 5 circuit. This arrangement maintains the Q of the tank circuit of FIG. 6 at a low value.
FIG. 7 shows a digital-analog conversion circuit that permits replacing the incremental capacitors with continuously variable devices for changing resonant frequencies. Referring to FIG. 7, resistors 224 are con nected through inverters 226 to transistors 228, and leads 98 are connected to the dotted terminals of windings 282av, ax, etc., as described above (see FIG. 5). Leads 318a, b, c k are connected to the undotted terminals of windings 282az, bz, etc. A voltage source 319 is connected to leads 318a, b, c k through resistors 320a, b, c k. Another voltage source 322 is connected to leads 318a, b, c k through diodes 324a, b, c k with the cathodes of the diodes connected to the voltage source.
A resistor 326 connects a lead 328a to ground, and lead 328a is connected to a resistor 330a. A lead 32% connects resistor 330a with a resistor 330b, a lead 3280 connects resistor 33% with a resistor 3300, etc. Resistor 330k is connected to a lead 332. Resistors 334a, b, c k connects leads 318a, b, c k to leads 328a, b, c k, respectively.
Lead 332 is connected through respective resistors 334, 336, and 338 to three tunable tank circuits 340, 342 and 344. Each tank circuit comprises an inductor 346, 348, 350 in parallel with a hyper-abrupt junction diode 352, 354, 356.
Typical types and values of the components in FIG. 7 with 12 volts at point 299 and 10 volts at point 322 are resistors 320, 5K; resistors 326 and 334, 12K; resistors 330, 6K; resistors 334, 336 and 338, 100K; and junction diodes 352, 354 and 356, Motorola Epicap MV1401.
FIG. 7 operation converts the digital sense of the binary counters into analog sense appearing at lead 332 through the resistance ladder made up of leads 328 and resistors 330. When pin 170a of flip flop 160a is at a high voltage, transistor 228a is turned off. Diode 324a clamps lead 318a at a potential slightly higher than the potential of point 322. In the circuit shown, this potential is about 10.7 volts. An increment of this potential appears in lead 328a l l and a portion of the increment is transmitted through resistor 330a, lead 328b, resistors 330b, lead 328a, etc., to lead 332 and finally through resistors 334, 336 and 338 to junction diodes 352, 354 and 356.
By similar analysis, when pin 17 b is at a high voltage, an increment of voltage appears in lead 32811 which adds to the voltage in lead 328a and the same is true for the remaining flip flops. On the other hand, if pin 170a is at a low voltage, transistor 228a is forward biased, lead 318 is at a low potential, and no voltage increment is produced in lead 328a. Thus the voltage ultimately appearing in lead 332 is analogous to the states of the flip flops.
The voltage in lead 332 varies the reverse bias on junction diodes 352, 354 and 356, and the junction diodes show a decrease in capacitance with an increase in reverse bias. This decreased capacitance increases the resonant frequency of the tunable circuits accordingly and thus the resonant frequencies of the tunable circuits 340, 342 and 344 are proportional to the voltage in lead 332.
A DC coupling arrangement can be used between the flip flops instead of the AC coupling shown. Such DC couplings are more easily produced in integrated circuit form and are less susceptible to spurious noise. The pulse generator and pulse counters can be used with any variable reactance in the tank circuit and without the memory circuit if desired. Definite tuning analogous to the crystal tuning systems widely used in aircraft and CB equipment is achieved by the incremental capacitors, while in FIGS. 6 and 7 circuits are more analogous to the continuous tuning systems found in ordinary AM radios. Where a memory system is desired, any of a variety of memories can be used in place of the magnetic core memory.
Thus this invention provides a tuning device for rapidly and accurately changing the resonant frequency of a resonant circuit. The tuning device can be used in any of a wide variety of receiving or transmitting equipment and can be miniaturized along with the other electronic components of the equipment.
What is claimed is:
l. In a mechanism used in the transmission of electromagnetic carrier waves of varying frequencies having a resonant circuit for tuning said mechanism to a carrier wave frequency, a tuning device comprising:
variable reactance means for changing the resonant frequency of said resonant circuit,
pulse counting means for varying the reactance of said variable reactance means,
pulse generating means coupled to said pulse counting means,
a manually operable means connected to said pulse generating means for starting and stopping pulse generation, the pulses being applied to said pulse counting means, said pulse counting means varying the reactance of said variable reactance means to change the resonant frequency of the resonant circuit according to the pulses counted, and
a storage means for storing the number of pulses counted by the pulse counting means from a predetermined reference point and a manually operated mechanism for resetting the pulse counting means with the data stored in the storage means to change the resonant frequency of said resonant circuit.
2. The mechanism of claim 1 in which the variable reactance means comprises a plurality of incremental capacitance means.
3. The mechanism of claim 1 in which the variable reactance means comprises a junction diode.
4. The mechanism of claim 1 in which the pulse counting means comprises a plurality of binary counters and the variable reactance means comprises a plurality of switches with each of said counters coupled to one of said switches so the condition of each counter is reflected by the switch coupled thereto.
5. The mechanism of claim 4 in which the storage means comprises a switchable magnetic storage element,
a first winding on said storage element coupling one of said switches with the corresponding binary counter, a second winding on said storage element, said second winding having one side coupled to a capacitor, a manually actuated switch pole for coupling a voltage source to the other side of said second winding, means for passing current approximately equaling one half of the amount of current needed to change the state of said storage element through said first winding when said corresponding binary counter is in the state for closing said switch, and means for discharging said capacitor through said second winding with a current approximately equaling one half of the current needed to change the state of the storage element when the switch pole decouples the voltage source from the second winding, the currents in said first and second windings adding together to change the state of the storage element.
6. The mechanism of claim 5 comprising a third winding on said storage element, and a manually actuated preset switch for coupling said third winding to a means for presetting said binary counter, said storage element inducing a presetting current in said third winding when the storage element changes its state as a result of said switch pole coupling the voltage source to the second winding.
7. The mechanism of claim 6 in which the manually operable means for starting and stopping pulse generation comprises a pressure sensitive resistor, circuit means containing said resistor for generating pulses according to the pressure on said pressure sensitive resistor, and a switch means spring loaded to a neutral position and manually movable to apply pressure to said pressure sensitive resistor.
'8. The mechanism of claim 1 in which the pulse counting means comprises a plurality of binary counters, said mechanism comprising means for converting the digital sense of said binary counters into analog sense representative of said digital sense, and means for varying the variable reactance means according to said analog sense.
9. The mechanism of claim 8 in which the digital to analog converting means comprises a resistance ladder and the variable reactance means comprises a junction diode.
I10. A tuning device for a resonant circuit comprising:
pulse generating means,
pulse counting means for counting the pulses of said pulse generating means,
variable reactance means in said resonant circuit,
circuit means coupling said pulse counting means to said variable reactance means, said variable reactance means changing the resonant frequency of said resonant circuit according to the state of said pulse counting means, and
memory means [for storing the state of said pulse counting means and circuitry for restoring the pulse counting means to the state of said memory means, said restoring circuitry comprising means for clearing the pulse counting means and means for transmitting the stored state from the memory means to the pulse counting means to restore the pulse counting means to the state stored in the memory means.
11. The tuning device of claim 10 in which the pulse counting means comprises a plurality of binary counters.
12. The tuning device of claim 11 in which the circuit means comprises a resistance ladder means for converting the binary sense of the pulse counter means into analog sense representative of the states of said binary counters, and the variable reactance means comprises means responsive to said analog sense for changing the resonant frequency of said resonant circuit.
13. The tuning device of claim 12 comprising manually actuated switch means movable from a rest position to a set position, said switch means activating the means for 13 clearing the binary counters when leaving the rest position and activating the means for transmitting the stored states from the memory means to the binary counters when reaching the set position.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 14 3,293,572 12/1966 Smith 331-36 X 3,376,517 4/1968 Reynolds 331-18 3,401,353 9/1968 Hughes 331-18 X HERMAN KARL SAALBACH, Primary Examiner PAUL L. GENSLER, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.